Basic rules and methods of vaccination in the garden
Spring is the time of copulation
Oblique cut with tongue on the rootstock
So, spring came into its own. Sowing and planting work begins in horticultures and dachas. Where to start?
Many gardeners prefer to acquire something new in the spring, and they strive to do it at the lowest cost for themselves. However, this is not so easy, because seedlings are very expensive now. How to be?
It turns out that everything is simple, you just need to ask a neighbor or friend for a stalk of the variety you like and plant it on your site. Spring is the time for grafting, especially for grafting!
Copulation - grafting by cutting
Copulation, that is, this is how grafting is called by cutting, allows you to minimize the time when plants enter fruiting, or to accelerate the beginning of flowering, if the plants are decorative. This method is simple and accessible to anyone.
They often resort to grafting with a cuttings in order to improve the quality of the crops available on the site. And it also happens that the variety has died out to the level of the rootstock, or an ordinary savage has grown from a cultivated seedling, which is a pity to uproot, but it is quite possible to re-graft it.
The connection of the scion with the stock
In addition, grafting with a cuttings helps to create interesting trees on the site, into the crowns of which several varieties are grafted, differing in color and taste of fruits, for example, such pear or apple plants look great. Each of them is a garden tree!
Cuttings for grafting must be healthy, strong and ripe, cut them in early spring or late autumn. In the latter case, they are stored buried in the snow, and before that they are securely wrapped in burlap, or placed in a refrigerator.
When it's time to plant, make sure the cuttings haven't rotted. Check if the kidneys are intact, if their bark is smooth, if they are dry. If everything is in order, then you can start vaccination.
What do you need to get vaccinated?
Firstly, the tools and grafting materials - a sharpened eyepiece knife, plastic wrap, which must first be cut into ribbons 10-12 cm long and 1 cm wide, garden var and a glass of water.
Wrapping with plastic wrap
Cut the cuttings and place them in a glass of water, then proceed with the grafting. To begin with, select the stock, clean the trunk of possible dirt with a rag and make an oblique cut on the stock, it should be as longitudinal as possible, this will help the scion and stock to grow together quickly, and its length should be 3-5 times greater than the width.
The most optimal length of the cuttings, that is, the scion, is 10-12 centimeters, and they should have a couple of internodes, that is, about 3-5 buds. The whole process of grafting: cut to rootstock and cut to scion, as well as their connection, must be carried out as quickly as possible.
This is necessary so that the surface of the slices does not dry out. Experienced gardeners keep cut cuttings in their mouths for added security.
All the upper, as a rule, blunt cuts of the scion, that is, the cuttings, must be covered with garden varnish and in the future make sure that the wild growth does not "clog" the cultivated shoots and remove it in a timely manner. This is a general description of the vaccination technique, and now let's start describing its subtleties.
In general, a large number of types of vaccination are known, well over a hundred, but for the most part these are specific vaccinations that a simple amateur gardener will never need, but there are only three main types that are used very often:
Vaccination is ready
This rather rare method is used only when the stock is several times thicker than the scion. The need for this type of vaccination occurs in cases where there are no rootstocks at hand in the thickness of the scion, and the variety is very good, and you want to definitely have it on your site.
In general, stocking rootstocks of various lengths and thicknesses is usually not a problem. After all, anyone can pull rowan seedlings in plantings and simply transplant them to the place where you would like to grow the desired varieties in the future. And in the spring, as soon as the sap flow begins, it is enough to cut the stock at a height of about 15-20 centimeters or at any other height you need.
Preparing for the split grafting, we make the cut so that it turns out to be even. Then, with a sharp budding knife, we make a shallow split, dividing the stem of the stock into two parts, and insert a previously prepared scion stalk into the middle of it, which we cut with a wedge on both sides. All this must be done so that the cambial layers coincide, otherwise your work may be in vain. After you have connected both the scion and the stock, you need to coat everything very well, in a thin layer, with garden pitch and rather tightly, without leaving bare wood, wrap the grafting with plastic wrap. With this method of inoculation, a large amount will be required.
Vaccination in the butt
Vaccination in the butt
The next method, perhaps the most common, is inoculation in the butt, both improved (with a tongue) and conventional (without a tongue). This type of grafting is applicable if the scion and rootstock are the same in diameter. The essence of this grafting is as follows: at the lower end of the cutting, an oblique cut is made, which has a length of about 4-5 cm and exactly the same cut is made on the rootstock.
On each of the cuts (both on the scion and on the rootstock), a cut directed inward is made, which looks like a tongue (with the method with a tongue, an improved copulation), or they do nothing - simple copulation, and the sections of the scion and rootstock are connected so that the tongues walked in behind each other, after which they were tightly wrapped with foil, and the top of the cutting (scion) was covered with garden varnish (see drawings and photos).
Side cut grafting
Side cut grafting
And finally, the method that takes the honorable second place in terms of frequency of use is the side-slit grafting. It is used in cases where the stock is much thicker than the scion. And so much so that the method of inoculation with split is not suitable here. Technically, this method is quite simple: on the stock, moving the knife from top to bottom, a side cut is made - usually at an angle of 20-25 degrees.
The lower end of the cuttings of the scion is given the shape of a wedge, sharpening it from all sides. The stock is slightly tilted so that the slot widens and our pointed cutting is inserted into the cut so that the cambial layers of the scion and stock are combined (see figure). That's all, it remains only to wrap everything with plastic wrap, and coat the top of the scion with garden varnish. Applying this method so that the stalk is firmly clamped by the rootstock wood, it is possible to do without strapping with plastic wrap, but it is imperative to isolate the bare wood.
Side cut grafting
Using the method in the lateral incision, the grafting can be performed at the root collar, however, in this case, the stalk must be taken with at least two buds, and if you decide to inoculate in the crown in this way, then it will not hurt to leave 6-7 buds ... The advantages of this method of inoculation include the relative ease and undeniable speed of the operation.
Remember: whichever method you choose, it is very important to ensure that the strapping, which is most often plastic wrap, is removed from the vaccination site on time. It is important to prevent constrictions, which will lead to a fracture of the too thin graft site and, naturally, to the death of a plant that is already beginning to form.
Here is a description of the most common grafting methods used by gardeners. These are the simplest and most effective techniques that allow you, without special physical and material costs, to create a garden on your site from the most significant for you and favorite varieties of any crops.
- The use of grafting in ornamental gardening. Create weeping tree shapes
- Types of grafts for fruit and ornamental trees
- Grafting of fruit and ornamental plants
- Methods and rules for grafting fruit plants
Nikolay Khromov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,
Researcher, Berry Crops Department
GNU VNIIS them. I.V. Michurina,
member of the R&D Academy
- All the positive and useful qualities of a varietal plant are preserved, the risk of losing which exists during pollination or seed formation. Plants obtained from seeds often grow "wild" and are suitable only for rootstock.
- Vaccination makes it possible to grow even the most delicate and whimsical varieties that cannot acclimatize on their own in the conditions of our country. The endurance of the root system of the rootstock will give the plant greater frost resistance or drought resistance.
- The correct selection of the stock allows you to breed a dwarf variety. In this case, the speed of fruit ripening increases and the harvesting becomes easier.
- Knowledgeable gardeners can graft several varieties to one rootstock and get different fruits from one apple tree. So you can save space and enjoy a variety of fruits, albeit in smaller quantities. The method is suitable when you need to try out new varieties before allocating a separate place for them. Also, this method is successful when it is necessary to vaccinate a variety for pollination purposes.
- If one of the young seedlings is damaged by rodents, frost or sunlight, you can restore it by grafting with a "bridge".
- Many have sparsely fruitful trees or poor quality fruit on the site. By means of grafting, the garden can be radically renewed in a short time.
Not all plants have good compatibility. Rootstocks and scions with the same genetics take root best of all (apple - with apple, plum - with cherry plum or other plum). Plants will grow together successfully only if they are compatible. It is very important that their life rhythms coincide, in other words: sleep time and sokogon period. Do not try to grow summer and winter varieties on the same tree. The biorhythm of the plant will break down, and it will not survive the winter.
Cherry grafting by copulation
To inoculate cherries with improved copulation, it is necessary that the rootstock and the scion are of the same thickness. As a rule, 1-2-year-old shoots are used for this.
The rootstock diameter can be 1-1.5 mm larger than the scion diameter (but not vice versa!). In this case, connect the scion and rootstock especially carefully: their cambial layers must coincide on at least one side.
Vaccination is carried out using a special copulating knife. With the correct grafting by copulation, the stalk and rootstock grow together so tightly that after a few years it is difficult to find the fusion site.
1. On both cuttings, use a sharp copulating knife to make bevel cuts 3 cm long.
2. Then, in the center of these cuts, make small splits - "tongues", thanks to which the rootstock and graft will tightly connect to each other.
3. Tightly fasten the cuttings together with the "tongues".
4. Wrap the vaccination site with any strapping material (electrical tape, tape, plastic wrap).
5. Put a plastic bag over the grafted stalk and tie it below the graft site. Leave this "greenhouse" on the tree while the scion grows together with the stock. The vaccine usually takes 2-4 weeks to take root.
Have you never grafted fruit trees before? Why not try planting cherries now. Spring is the best time for this exciting activity. With the help of grafting, you will be able to propagate any kind of sweet cherry you like, even if she does not like the unstable climate of your region too much.
Scion cuttings preparation
Soaking cuttings before grafting
In order for the grafting to give a guaranteed result, it is important to obtain a good scion material. There are many ways to get cuttings of varietal trees. From a trivial purchase to an independent procurement.
If you get cuttings yourself, you can use the following recommendations:
Grafting fruit trees
You can store cuttings in wooden boxes in a cellar or basement without access to light. However, they should be in a humid environment (for example, wet sawdust or a cloth soaked in water). It is necessary to remove the cuttings from the storage place no earlier than a day before inoculation.
If, for some reason, grafting is carried out in the summer, then the process of harvesting cuttings is greatly simplified - they are cut immediately before grafting. Another advantage of summer grafting (besides the lack of storage) is that only two buds are enough for the graft, and they may already be in full bloom.
Vaccination material and tools
For grafting, a stock is needed - a plant to which a stalk will be grafted. An adult fruit tree or a seedling of a closely related culture can act as a rootstock.
You will also need a scion - a stalk or a bud of a varietal plant. She should be in a dormant state, the kidneys should not be swollen. You can prepare suitable shoots in advance and store them in a cool place with high humidity (cellar, refrigerator, snowdrift) or prepare them just before grafting.
- garden pruner
- sharp knife
- garden saw
- insulating tape
- flat screwdriver
- garden var or pasta.
There is a special tool for grafting trees in spring - a grafting pruner. With its help, you can make neat curly cuts on the spliced parts.
Budding - grafting a piece of bark with a kidney (eye). This is the most economical way of multiplying varieties of fruit trees, as it allows you to get a large amount of grafting material from one plant. Vaccination is carried out quickly, and the survival rate of the scion is very high. Budding is possible if the rootstock has a thin, smooth and elastic bark in the place chosen for grafting.
Budding is carried out in two ways: in the butt and behind the bark in a T-shaped incision. The first method is used before and during the active movement of juices in plants.
Not all buds are suitable for budding, but only those that ensure growth and fruiting in the future. For example, in an apple tree, they are harvested exclusively from the middle part of the cuttings. In a pear, buds from the upper and middle parts of the cuttings are suitable for grafting. It is important that the cuttings are freshly cut or kept in the refrigerator for no more than 10 days.
On the bark of the stock, a wide incision 2.5-3 cm long is made longitudinally with a knife, deeper at the end and corresponding in width to the eye. The upper third of the separated tissue is trimmed. The buds for grafting are cut from cuttings. First, 1.2-1.3 cm below the selected bud, a transverse incision in the bark and a small layer of wood at an angle is made on the handle. Then, having retreated 1.2-1.3 cm above the kidney, they make a cut of the bark with a knife in the direction of the incision and a little deeper into the wood. As a result, a wedge-shaped piece of wood is separated, covered with a larger bark and with a bud. It is applied to the exposed wood on the rootstock and covered with a separated strip of bark. The vaccination site is tied, while it is permissible to close the kidney.
The second method of budding is used only during the period of active sap flow of plants. A T-shaped incision is made on the bark of the stock. First, the bark is incised horizontally by 1.5 cm, then vertically by 2.5-3 cm. The corners of the incised bark are bent with a knife blade. Then the bark is separated from the wood using the protrusion of the budding knife. It is important not to damage the underlying cambium layer.
A peephole with a kidney is inserted into the incision and the bent part of the bark is pressed from above.If the peephole is not fully inserted into the incision, then it is cut from above without removing it. The site of inoculation is tied with a tape approximately 1.5 cm wide, leaving the kidney open. If after 10-15 days the kidney dries up, then the vaccination is repeated in another place.