Planting, growing and caring for chokeberry
The significance of the chokeberry - the medicinal property of the fruit, which occupy a leading position in the content of antioxidants.
The crop has a special genetics that contribute to high and stable yields even with minimal maintenance.
Crop requirements for growing conditions
Chokeberry - the result of crossing black chokeberry and common mountain ash.
The habitat of the natural species of chokeberry is swamps, sandy plains and mountain slopes of North America. This is an unsightly and undersized shrub, which is radically different from the well-known chokeberry.
The shrub owes its cultivation and popularity in Russia to the Russian breeder I.V. Michurin. As a result of numerous experiences and practical tests a completely new culture was obtained - chokeberry.
Due to its high winter hardiness, disease resistance, unpretentiousness to climatic and soil conditions, the shrub quickly spread over vast areas.
To grow chokeberry, you need to choose well-lit areas. The shrub will develop painlessly in the shade, but the yield and quality of the fruit will be significantly reduced.
Lowlands are good, where the occurrence of groundwater is not more than 2 m. This is isolated by the relatively shallow occurrence of plant roots, the bulk of which is located up to 60 cm, and the taproots rarely reach a depth of 2 meters.
With a lack of moisture in the root layer, winter hardiness and productivity of the shrub decreases.
Chokeberry grows well on different soil types: chernozems, gray forest, drained peat bogs, sod-podzolic. Stony, swampy and saline soils are absolutely unsuitable for its cultivation.
Chokeberry can be planted in a combined hedge or as a specimen plant to decorate a spacious area.
This is a good option to strengthen the ravines or the perimeter of the personal plotlocated along a cliff or river mouth.
Choosing a seedling and varieties of chokeberry
Breeders have introduced many varieties and hybrids of chokeberry. Popular varieties:
Their signs are almost similar, there are minor differences in taste and fruiting timing.
therefore the main criterion when choosing a seedling should be purchase of planting material adapted to the conditions of the region.
This means that you need to purchase a seedling in local nurseries or consider a shrub growing in neighboring areas as a mother plant.
For planting, you need to purchase a one- or two-year-old seedling, while it is important to pay attention to quality indicators.
These are: height up to 1.3 m, healthy bark without traces of damage, developed taproots of at least 25 cm with a mass of overgrown roots.
The productive period of chokeberry in the middle zone is 25-30 years... All this time, it has a stable and high yield.
Therefore, to provide one family with fruits, it is enough to plant 1-2 shrubs, which will enter fruiting in 2-3 years.
When to plant: fall or spring?
Chokeberry can be planted in spring or autumn... The most preferable for the development of a seedling and a gardener is an autumn planting. At this time, you can buy planting material with fresh roots at a bargain price.
In the middle lane, chokeberry planted from mid-September to the third decade of October... During this period, the shrub gradually enters a state of relative dormancy, but its roots will develop until the soil temperature drops to -4 ° C.
Therefore, in the spring, the plant will immediately begin to build up its vegetative mass. This gives a great advantage to the seedlings of autumn planting, which are ahead in development of plants planted in spring by more than 20 days.
Autumn planting can be considered a relatively minor violation of the natural development of the shrub, so they are more winter hardy. The same cannot be said about spring seedlings that go through a long storage stage.
Benefits of autumn planting for the gardener - saving time, the plant does not need additional care, except for a shelter for the winter.
When planting in spring it will be necessary to control the likelihood of recurrent frosts, exposure to dry winds and temperature drops.
Regardless of the general recommendations, when planting a seedling, you need to focus on the average temperature indicators of the region. You can plant at least 20 days before the first frost.... If the deadlines are missed, the seedling needs to be dug in the ridge until spring.
In the spring, the plant is planted before bud breakwhen the air temperature warms up to + 15 ° С.
How to plant: stages of work
The planting pit and the seedling substrate are prepared in advance, preferably in 1-2 months. During this time, the soil mixture is structured, and the nutrients will take forms that are easily digestible by the roots of the plant. The optimal pit size is 60x60x50 (cm), the landing pattern is 2.5x4 (m).
To prepare the substrate, you will need the top layer of soil removed during the digging of the hole. It is supplemented with components:
- humus or compost 2 buckets;
- superphosphate 120 g;
- potassium sulfate 60 g.
A drainage layer of broken brick or crushed stone is laid at the bottom of the pit, no more than 15-20% of the total volume.
Before planting, the seedling needs to be inspected again.... If damaged roots are found, problem areas are cut off to healthy skin, and dried ones are placed in water for 10 hours.
For better survival, the roots are dipped in a mash made from oily clay, mullein and water.
In order for the chokeberry to take root and grow well, it must be planted deeper than it grew in the nursery. This is necessary to deepen the basal shoots (awl) growing from the root collar.
In light soils, the seedling is buried by 6 cm, in heavy soils by 2-3 cm... Thus, the root collar of the shrub after soil shrinkage should remain 1-3 cm below the ground level.
I am guided by the recommended criteria; at the bottom of the pit, a mound is formed from the prepared substrate. The roots of the seedling are evenly distributed on its surface. It is important to ensure that there are no unnatural folds.
The roots are covered with soil mixture, periodically shaking the stem to avoid the formation of voids. After compacting the trunk circle and watering the seedling, need to form a layer of mulch... Well suited for this: peat, sawdust, grass cuttings or wood chips.
After planting, the aerial part of the seedling is cut, leaving only 20 cm in length... For autumn planting, the procedure is postponed until spring and carried out until bud break.
Care after landing
The care requirements for the shrub are minimal. Besides it is rarely affected by pests and diseases... This makes it especially attractive for cultivation in the country, where the presence of a gardener is not constant.
Shelter for the winter
A seedling planted in the fall must be prepared for the first winter season. For this he is bent to the ground and pressed with boards... It is important to do this until the air temperature drops to -1 ° С-2 ° С.
Otherwise, the stem of the bush will lose its elasticity and may break. While bending the bush it is important to ensure that the height of the arc does not exceed 20-30 cm.
Additionally the seedling is covered with spruce branches, and the layer of mulch is made higher. In winters with little snow, the bush is covered with snow.
In the spring, with the establishment of a stable temperature, the plant needs to be straightened. If you keep it in a bent state for a long time, the apical shoots can support.
Do I need to cut the shoots?
A feature of black chokeberry is the rapid formation of shoots, which leads to a strong thickening of the crown. Therefore, in young bushes, root shoots are annually removed, leaving only 5-6 stronger ones and growing in the right direction.
For the right balance of stability and yield an adult shrub should have 30-50 strong trunks.
Sanitary pruning is in the removal of old, rotten and bare branches. The shrub lays fruit buds on annual shoots, so they should not be shortened.
To increase the productivity and lifespan of the shrub, anti-aging pruning should be done every 3-4 years... During the procedure, the shoots of the chokeberry are shortened by half their height.
Chokeberry responds well to feeding that needs to be done twice a year... To do this, in the near-trunk circle per 1 m2, you need to close up:
- ammonium nitrate 20 g (in spring);
- potassium salt 20 g, superphosphate 30 g (in autumn).
Good results are obtained foliar feeding of shrubs after floweringwhen the fruits begin to set. To do this, it is sprayed with an aqueous solution of urea (20g / 10l).
With the accumulation of an excessive amount of nitrogen, the growth and duration of the formation of basal shoots increases. In young shoots, the bark does not have time to lignify, and the apical bud does not form.
This leads to severe freezing even in the most favorable winter. therefore in the second half of the growing season, nitrogen fertilization should not be done.
Watering and loosening the soil
Chokeberry - a moisture-loving culture... Watering is especially important for her at the beginning of the growing season and during fruit formation.
In persistent hot weather, the shrub is watered every week. Water norm for an adult shrub 30 liters.
For this, irrigation furrows can be made at a distance of 30-40 cm from the shrub trunks. With this method, water will penetrate all the roots of the plant.
Twice a season it is necessary to loosen the soil in the near-trunk circle, while removing weeds. The autumn procedure is especially important.
Excessive soil compaction contributes to severe soil freezing in the root layers, which significantly reduces the winter hardiness of the shrub.
Prevention of diseases and pests
After harvesting and in the spring before bud break, the shrub must be treated with fungicides. For this it is sprayed with 1% bordeaux liquid.
Shrub resistant to pest infestation... The reason for the spread of insects to black chokeberry can be a massive damage to the site by pests.
In these cases, it is necessary to apply a cardinal measure - spraying with chemicals.
Chokeberries are good for culinary preparations. and are especially valuable for their medicinal properties. The shrub is also attractive for its decorative effect.
Hedge from a plant will transform the backdrop of the infield three times a year, from white during flowering to purple leaves in late fall.
Planting and caring for chokeberry:
Chokeberry (chokeberry) in the garden
Aronia, or as it is popularly called, chokeberry, black chokeberry - a shrub that many gardeners undeservedly deprive of attention. Chokeberry fruits are a storehouse of vitamins and minerals. Moreover, it is one of the most undemanding garden plants. It produces berries every year, regardless of weather conditions and soil type.
Growing black chokeberry will not take much time and effort from you, and the harvested berries will fill the lack of vitamins in your body throughout the winter. In addition, this shrub will be an excellent decoration for your site.
What conditions are needed for growing chokeberry
In its natural environment, the conditions of North America, the shrub grows in swamps, sandy plains, on mountain slopes.
Therefore, it will develop well in low-lying areas with a high occurrence of underground sources (no more than 2 meters). Its roots do not reach a depth higher than indicated. In other conditions, the yield will be lower and the cold resistance of the plant will deteriorate.
The culture is tolerant of the choice of soil. Dislikes swampy lands with high salt content.
The culture will grow in the shade, but on a well-lit area, the crop will reach varietal parameters, and the plant will be more developed and strong. Loamy, neutral soil is the best choice for planting.
It is important to remember that planting of chokeberry should be carried out in accordance with the recommendations:
- first, you should dig a hole with a diameter of 50 cm and a depth of about 40 cm
- when digging a hole, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that the upper fertile layer must be laid out on one side of the hole, and the lower layers of soil on the other
- about 5 kg of humus and 100 g of superphosphate substance should be poured into the fertile layer
- put a seedling in the hole and cover with the prepared mixture
- the root collar should be placed under the ground to a depth of about 2 cm, no more.
Now the planted plant needs to be watered with 10 liters of warm water and mulching the soil. This can be done with sawdust, straw, or humus. For better growth when growing, you should cut the bush. Ideally, the seedling should rise 20-30 cm above the ground.
How to groom in spring
Chokeberry care is very simple. In the spring, the plant needs sanitary and formative pruning, as well as whitewashing the surface of the trunk with lime. It is recommended to carry out these procedures in the last days of March or the first days - April. Preventive treatment of the plant must be carried out in April, due to this, all pests and pathogens that survived the winter in the bark of the plant or in the surface of the trunk circle will die. In May, chokeberry needs timely weeding, and it is better to carry out them immediately after the weed appears.
In spring, the plant is fed with nitrogen-containing fertilizers.
How to care for the summer
In summer, a large number of harmful insects appear, so you need to be especially careful at this time. Make sure that all the plants in the garden are healthy, and at the first symptoms of the disease or in the presence of pests, immediately begin treatment of the affected specimen. To process the plant, you must choose those drugs or folk remedies that are suitable in this particular case.
The chokeberry is distinguished by its drought tolerance. However, if it is very hot in summer and there is a drought, it must be watered. After watering, it is very easy to loosen the soil surface and remove weeds.
The fruits ripen in the last days of August, but it is recommended to harvest them only after the first frost. In autumn, the seedlings of this plant are planted in open soil. The planted plants must be prepared for wintering. When the dormant period begins for the shrub, it will need sanitary pruning. Chokeberry also needs preventive treatment, during which all pests and pathogenic microorganisms located on the surface of the trunk circle and in the bark of the plant itself will be destroyed. Young specimens need to be piled high, while the surface of the trunk circle is covered with spruce branches or dried foliage. Adult specimens do not need shelter for the winter.
To maintain the health of the plant and avoid possible problems, the shrub needs preventive treatments against various diseases and harmful insects. They are produced at the very beginning of the spring period before the buds open. A solution of Bordeaux liquid (1%) is used to treat the plant.Treatment for prophylactic purposes in the autumn is carried out after all the foliage has fallen off, while the same or a similar agent is used for spraying. You can replace Bordeaux liquid with a urea solution (7%), this will not only destroy pests and pathogens, but also feed chokeberry with nitrogen.
Such a plant needs watering especially acutely at the very beginning of the growing season, especially if there is a prolonged drought and heat. Also, watering of black chokeberry is necessary at a time when the fruits begin to form. Under 1 bush, depending on its age, it should be poured from 20 to 30 liters at a time. Water should be poured into prepared furrows, which are made around the plant at a distance of 0.3–0.4 meters from the crown projection.
When watering is finished, and water is absorbed into the soil, it is recommended to loosen its top layer, as well as weeding. The first loosening of the soil to a depth of 6 to 8 centimeters around the plant should be done at the very beginning of the spring period. In total, during the summer, it will be necessary to carry out 4 or 5 more loosening. When all the fruits are collected from the plant, be sure to loosen the surface of the trunk circle and cover it with a layer of mulch (manure, peat or compost).
In order for the harvest to be rich, chokeberry will need timely feeding. If the soil on the site is saturated with nutrients, then the plant will need to be fed only once in spring. So, 50 grams of ammonium nitrate is introduced into the soil under one plant, while the surface of the trunk circle is mulched with organic matter (compost, manure or humus). In the event that the soil is poor, then you will need to feed the chokeberry also in the first weeks of summer. To do this, 10 liters of poultry manure solution (10 parts of water and 1 part of droppings) or 1 bucket of mullein solution is poured under one plant (1 part of mullein is taken for 5 parts of water). In the autumn, when all the fruits are removed, fertilizers need to be applied to the soil, so 100 grams of superphosphate and 500 ml of wood ash are taken for 1 bush.
Planting and leaving
Experts recommend planting chokeberry in the fall, but in practice, the procedure can be carried out in the spring. The main thing is to meet the deadlines. In autumn, the procedure is carried out at the end of September or early October, and in the spring it is advisable to complete all manipulations by the end of April (Figure 4).
To facilitate the care of mountain ash in the open field, you need to choose the right site for its placement. Fortunately, this culture grows successfully on any soil, including acidic and sandy ones. The only exception is saline soils. On them, rowan develops poorly and practically does not bear fruit. The area for chokeberry should be well lit. Only in this case the bush will bloom and bear fruit abundantly.
Before planting a seedling, inspect it carefully. The bark should not show any signs of mechanical damage. The same condition applies to roots. If you notice injured or dry roots, it is advisable to cut them off immediately.
The direct planting of the chokeberry is as follows:
- The procedure is best done in the evening or on a cloudy day, so that the increased solar activity does not harm the seedling.
- If you are planting chokeberry as a stand-alone plant, make sure that the distance between it and other garden crops is at least three meters. This will make it easier to care for the plant and make the harvest more abundant, as the bush will be evenly illuminated by the sun.
- The width and depth of the planting pit should be 50-60 cm. In this case, be guided by the size of the root system of a particular seedling.
- It is also necessary to prepare the soil mixture with which the hole will be filled. The infertile soil should be set aside, and the inner space of the pit should be filled with a special nutrient mixture. It includes 0.3 kg of wood ash, 1 bucket of humus and 150 grams of superphosphate.
- A third of the hole is filled with this mixture, and the remaining space is filled with fertile soil. The soil must be watered with a bucket of water.
- Only after the liquid is absorbed, a prepared seedling is placed in the center of the pit. It is necessary to ensure that the root collar is 15-20 cm above the ground level. Otherwise, the bush simply will not take root.
- Next, you should carefully spread the roots and fill the free space between them with nutritious soil.
The near-trunk circle near the planted mountain ash is compacted, watered abundantly (10 liters of water per plant) and covered with a layer of mulch. It will protect the soil from moisture evaporation and prevent the growth of weeds.
This planting algorithm can be practiced both in spring and autumn. However, the advantage of autumn planting is that during the winter the soil around the bush is strongly compacted, and in the spring it begins to grow more actively
Chokeberry: growing and care
Chokeberry (chokeberry) refers to shrubs that, in addition to decorative properties, have berries that contain many vitamins and nutrients.
Chokeberry does not require special requirements for growing and care.
Chokeberry blooms with pale pink flowers, collected in bunches, and the foliage in the fall pleases with a multi-colored color from green to reddish shades.
Chokeberry (chokeberry) is good for decorating plots while getting a rich harvest of useful berries.
Chokeberry (chokeberry) is not demanding on the soil, the only necessary condition for full development is the constantly moderate moisture of the earth.
For planting, we choose a well-lit place, since with this choice, the ovaries are perfectly formed and good fruiting occurs.
We dig a hole for planting 60 cm in diameter and 40 cm deep into it we pour fertile soil prepared by mixing in equal proportions peat, turf and humus. We plant a chokeberry bush.
When planting, we will straighten the roots, and deepen the root collar a little to a depth of 1.5-2 cm. After planting the bush, we water it abundantly.
To plant Chokeberry (chokeberry) is best rooted in a container, so it will better tolerate planting and yield a harvest in the first year.
If you are planting a bush that is not formed in a container and has a weak root system, then cut the top off to a height of 20-25 cm from the ground. This will allow the plant to form a root portion faster and easier.
It is good to choose the planting time in the evening or in cloudy weather.
Chokeberry (chokeberry) grows strongly, therefore, when planting, observe a distance between the bushes of about 2 meters.
Chokeberry (chokeberry) requires good feeding. The first 2-3 years, you can make ammonium nitrate at the rate of 50 grams. for one bush, and for 5-6, a complete complex mineral fertilizer works well, as well as organic matter at the rate of 1.5-2 buckets for one bush.
Aronia grows well and gives abundant shoots, approximately at 6-7 years it should be thinned out, cutting out old poorly fruiting branches and allowing young shoots to grow.
A very old bush can be rejuvenated. To do this, in the fall at the very root cut all branches and in the spring at this place you will see new shoots that will begin to bear fruit this year.
Chokeberry reproduces perfectly, by planting only one bush on the site, you can propagate it in any quantity and without much difficulty.
- The first method is to sow seeds in the fall, they germinate very well in the spring.
- The second method, we pin down and sprinkle the young side shoots with earth, with this method a root is formed on the area covered with earth, and the rooted shoot can be painlessly separated from the main plant and transplanted to any place.
- The third way is propagation by green cuttings. We take the prepared stalk and plant it in the ground, cover it with an impromptu greenhouse on top to create a greenhouse effect.
- The fourth way is to divide an adult bush.
Chokeberry in landscape design is used as a hedge, garden paths are made out.
Conclusion to plant chokeberry (chokeberry) in garden plots is not just beautiful, but also profitable, in addition to beautiful forms and various colors of foliage, you can get a source of useful vitamins and substances contained in the berries of this plant. The plant is not whimsical, does not require special care and, most importantly, is very frost-resistant.